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Non-Profit Organization in Canada

I am going to work within a non-profit organization in BC Canada. So I want to know more about it.

What is a Non-Profit Corporation?

A non-profit corporation is a legal entity separate from its members and directors formed for purposes other than generating a profit to be distributed to its members, directors or officers. While a non-profit corporation can earn a profit, the profit must be used to further the goals of the corporation rather than to pay dividends to its membership. Non-profit corporations are formed pursuant to federal or provincial law. A non-profit corporation can be a church or church association, school, charity, medical provider, activity clubs, volunteer services organization, professional association, research institute, museum, or in some cases a sports association. Non-profit corporations must apply for charitable status to benefit from tax-exempt status and to issue tax-deductible receipts to donors.

Non-profit corporations are distinct from business corporations that are formed to make a profit and to distribute the profit to their shareholders. Business corporations are regulated by either federal or provincial laws.

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Valuation Definitions

When reading the insurance policy, there are many terms about valuation.

Actual Cash Value: the fair or reasonable cash price property would bring in a fair market, allowing for depreciation.

Assessed Value: The valuation placed on property by a public tax assessor for purposes of taxation. The main assessor for B.C. is BC Assessment, a provincial Crown corporation governed by the Assessment Act. Due to the high number of properties it must assess, BC Assessment uses a mass appraisal system, using data from sales, land titles, municipal planning departments and other sources. Only a limited number of properties are actually inspected in any given year, and individual property appraisals are usually not undertaken by BC Assessment unless an assessment is appealed. The mass appraisal approach means that the assessed value may not include some unique components of a dwelling that would contribute to its value. But since taxes must be calculated based upon a specific value, the Assessment Act requires that the assessment notice specify a single value. A certain amount of information about assessed value is in the public domain and is available online at www.bcassessment.ca; click on e-Value BC. BC Assessment determines properties value as of July 1 (the ‘valuation date’) of each year, and sends assessment notices to homeowners the following January. Municipal taxes are assessed on the basis of this assessed value. Property owners can appeal the valuation, or can request that the valuation change to reflect temporary conditions such as major refurbishment.

Appraised Value: An opinion of a property’s fair market value, based on an appraiser’s knowledge, experience and analysis of the property.

Cost Approach: One of the techniques used by appraisers to estimate value, cost approach combines the estimated land value and the depreciated value of the improvements. The underlying presumption is that a person will not pay more for a property than the cost to replace it: that is, the cost of the site plus the value of the improvements. The value of improvements is determined using a manual that is adjusted for local conditions, or from construction costs derived from local contractors. The value is then adjusted to reflect any depreciation to the improvements. This technique is not frequently used for older properties, due to the difficulties in accurately calculating the depreciated value of the improvements.

Fair Market Value: The highest price that a buyer, willing but not compelled to buy, would pay and the lowest a seller, willing but not compelled to sell, would accept. Market value is a product of many factors including location, size, features and current market conditions. To develop market value, an appraiser typically does a full physical inspection of the property followed by a detailed study of all the other factors. This is the most fluid of all the values on a given piece of property as the factors are almost always changing. The only time the factors from the actual cost of construction play into this number is when it is a new construction. The new construction costs are used as a basis to determine the worth of building relative to the anticipated sale price. Obviously the truest indicator of the market value of a piece of property or home is what it actually sells for.

Reconstruction Cost: The cost to rebuild, including soft costs (engineering reports, architectural drawing, municipal permits), removal of debris and reconstruction. Could include the cost of enforced demolition and removal of undamaged portions of the building.

Replacement Value: The cash value or cost to replace a thing. The value placed on a piece of property by an insurance company for the purpose of coverage.

Dwelling Styles

There are so many different styles of house. Yes, I mentioned the single house, or detached house. It is a free-standing residence building. Sometimes referred to as a single-family home, as opposed to a multi-family residential dwelling.

I get the list of these variations below.

One Story, Rancher and Rambler

A dwelling consisting of one story or single floor, of living area, with a full height stairway to the basement usually at the centre of the house or at the side door entrance. Typically the basement is unfinished at the time it is built. When the homeowner finishes the basement it can be finished as either a simple or custom design. This style of home ordinarily has a simple floor plan and generally includes a low pitched gable* roof, large windows, attached garage, sliding glass doors leading out to a back deck or patio.

1.5 Story or Cape Cod

Popular during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. The Cape Cod, boasts one and a half stories of finished living area. The second level typically has a steep roof slope and dormers*. The area of the second floor is usually smaller than the ground floor area because of the roof design. The chimney is typically placed at one end of the home instead of at the center.

Two Story, Colonial

An uncomplicated, economical, and refined home of two finished floors of approximately the same living area and both with full ceiling heights. The roof structure commonly has a medium slope.

2.5 Story

A residence with three levels of living area, a steep roof slope and dormers*. The upper most level is usually 40 % to 70% of the ground floor area. The 2.5 story home is similar to the Cape Code, with the exception being, the additional level of living area.

Three Story

A residence with three levels of finished living space, of approximately the same square footage and each floor having full ceiling heights.

A-Frame

Popular from the mid 1950s through the 1970s. The A-Frame has steeply angled sides (the roofline), that meet at the top in the shape of the letter A. The sloped roof creates a half floor at the top of the house which can be used as a loft. A-frames have limited living space and are commonly constructed as vacation cottages.

Bi-Level, Raised Ranch or Split Foyer

A home with two levels of living area of approximately the same size. The dwelling entrance is between floors and is considered a split-foyer entrance. The main entrance enters onto a landing with a flight of stairs leading to the main living areas on the upper level and a flight of stairs leading down to the lower level of living space. Practical style that fills a need for space and flexibility, little decorative detailing and sliding glass doors leading to a back yard patio are all familiar traits of a Bi-Level.

Bungalow

A space-efficient floor plan of the early 20th century. The Bungalow is ordinarily asmall, one story dwelling, usually with a front porch. Wood shingle exterior walls or wood siding and wood shingle roofs are regular features of the Bungalow style home.

A bungalow house in Houston, Texas

Pic source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bungalow#/media/File:George_L._Burlingame_House,_1238_Harvard_St,_Houston_(HDR).jpg

Contemporary

Contemporary homes are designed for today’s lifestyles with large open spaces and huge windows of very tall panes of glass. A combination of square and rectangular, geometric patterns designed are used to blend both interior and exterior. Commonly, the Contemporary home will consist of plain exteriors with the exception of the extensive use of glass.

Cottage

Generally used as a seasonal home, the cottage is a small simple one story building. Cottages typically have a minimal foundation, the building resting on posts, at the corners of the building.

Log

The Log home is typically made from logs that have not been milled into conventional lumber. The Handcrafted style of Log homes is typically made of logs that have been peeled but are essentially unchanged from their natural appearance, when they were trees.

Mediterranean

The ornamentation of a Mediterranean home can range from simple to dramatic. The exterior walls are commonly stucco of white or pastel. Arched windows and balconies with wrought iron or wood detail is a common trait of the Mediterranean style.

Ornate Victorian

Elaborate exteriors, interior finishes and trims including 36’ of gingerbread* on at least three lines of the exterior of the building are the features that set this home apart from the rest. Typically the Ornate Victorian boasts 2.5 or 3 stories, which include bay windows*, turrets*, tall chimneys and extensive porches.

Queen Anne

The Queen Ann is customarily 2.5 stories with abundant use of wood trim on both the interior and exterior of the home. Victorian Queen Anne homes often have steep roof lines, towers, turrets*, wrap-around porches and other fanciful details. Queen Anne became an architectural fashion in the 1880 and 1890s.

Split Level, Tri-Level

A dwelling that is divided into several parts, with often three or more levels of finished living area: lower level, intermediate level and upper level. The lower level is immediately below the upper level as in the two-story residence. The intermediate level, adjacent to the other levels, is built on a grade approximately one-half story higher than the lower level. The main entrance is usually (although not always) on the center level.

Southwest Adobe

A home made of adobe brick. There is a common use of stucco and various wood beams for both support and ornamentation. Roofs are typically flat.

Victorian

A Victorian home is a house that was constructed during the Victorian era, approximately 1840 to 1900. Victorians typically have elaborate exterior and interior finishes and trims, including 18” of gingerbread on at least three lines of the house. Usually, 2.5 or 3 stories of living area, Victorian homes commonly include the use of bay windows, turrets, tall chimneys and extensive porches.

 

Basic Construction Terms

When I study the construction phrases, I saw this set of terms of construction.  Recorded here for further use.

Balloon Framed Wall – Framed walls (generally over 10′ tall) that run the entire vertical length from the floor sill plate to the roof. This is done to eliminate the need for a gable end truss.

Baluster – Vertical member in a railing used between a top rail and bottom rail or the stair treads. Sometimes referred to as a ‘picket’ or ‘spindle’.

Column- A vertical structural compression member which supports loads.

Crawl Space – A shallow space below the living quarters of a house, normally enclosed by the foundation wall and having a dirt floor.

Damp-proofing – Black, tar like waterproofing material applied to the exterior of a foundation wall.

Dormer – An opening in a sloping roof, the framing of which projects out to form a vertical wall suitable for windows or other openings.

Downspout – A pipe, usually of metal, for carrying rainwater down from the roof’s horizontal gutters.

Drywall – A manufactured panel made out of gypsum plaster and encased in a thin cardboard. Usually 1/2″ thick and 4′ x 8′ or 4′ x 12′ in size. The panels are nailed or screwed onto the framing and the joints are taped and covered with a ‘joint compound’. ‘Green board’ type drywall has a greater resistance to moisture than regular (white) plasterboard and is used in bathrooms and other “wet areas”.

Duct – A round or rectangular metal pipe installed for distributing warm (or cold) air from the furnace to rooms in the home. Also, a tunnel made of galvanized metal or rigid fiberglass that carries air from the heater or ventilation opening to the rooms in a building.

Eaves – The horizontal exterior roof overhang.

Fascia – Horizontal boards attached to rafter/truss ends at the eaves and along gables. Roof drain gutters are attached to the fascia.

Footing – Continuous 8″ or 10″ thick concrete pad installed before and supports the foundation wall.

Form – Temporary structure erected to contain concrete during placing and initial hardening.

Foundation – The supporting portion of a structure below the first floor construction, or below grade, including the footings.

Framing – Lumber used for the structural members of a building, such as studs, joists and rafters.

Gable – The upper triangular-shaped portion of an end wall, beneath the roof.

Gable Roof – A ridge roof which terminates in a gable.

Gingerbread – Wood trim or molding of an elaborate ornamentation or superfluous embellishment.

Insulation – Any material high in resistance to heat transmission that, when placed in the walls, ceiling or floors of a structure, will reduce the rate of heat flow.

Jamb – The side and head lining of a doorway, window or other opening. Includes studs as well as the frame and trim.

Joist – Wooden 2 X 8’s, 10’s or 12’s that run parallel to one another and support a floor or ceiling, and supported in turn by larger beams, girders or bearing walls.

Millwork – Generally all building materials made of finished wood and manufactured in millwork plants. Includes all doors, window and door frames, blinds, mantels, panelwork, stairway components (ballusters, rails, etc.), moldings and interior trim. Does not include flooring, ceiling or siding.

Post and Pad Foundation – A foundation assembly for supporting a cross member that comprises a vertical timber post attached to the upper surface of a wider pre-formed concrete pad.

Rafter – Lumber used to support the roof sheeting and roof loads. Generally, 2 X 10’s and 2 X 12’s are used. The rafters of a flat roof are sometimes called roof joists.

Soffit – The area below the eaves and overhangs. The underside where the roof overhangs the walls. Usually the underside of an overhanging cornice.

Slab – Concrete pavement, including driveway, garage, and basement floor.

Stud – A vertical wood framing member, also referred to as a wall stud, attached to the horizontal sole plate below and the top plate above. Normally 2 X 4’s or 2 X 6’s, 8′ long. One of a series of wood or metal vertical structural members placed as supporting elements in walls and partitions.

Sump Pump – A submersible pump in a sump pit that pumps any excess ground water to the outside of the home.

Turret – A small tower projecting from a building, usually at a corner.

Vancouver Special – A common reference to houses built in a particular architectural styleroughly between 1965 and 1985 in Vancouver, B.C. They are characterized by their box-like structure, low-pitched roofs, balconies across the front of the house, and brick or stone finishes on the ground-floor level of the facade with stucco elsewhere. Vancouver Specials usually have the main living quarters on the upper floor and secondary bedrooms on the bottom, making them ideal for renovating to secondary suites. The style takes maximum advantage of the buildable area of a standard city lot.

Vapour Barrier – A building product installed on exterior walls and ceilings under the drywall and on the warm side of the insulation. It is used to retard the movement of water vapour into walls and prevent condensation within them. Normally, polyethylene plastic sheeting is used.

Basic Construction Terms

Balloon Framed Wall – Framed walls (generally over 10′ tall) that run the entire vertical length from the floor sill plate to the roof. This is done to eliminate the need for a gable end truss.

Baluster – Vertical member in a railing used between a top rail and bottom rail or the stair treads. Sometimes referred to as a ‘picket’ or ‘spindle’.

Column- A vertical structural compression member which supports loads.

Crawl Space – A shallow space below the living quarters of a house, normally enclosed by the foundation wall and having a dirt floor.

Damp-proofing – Black, tar like waterproofing material applied to the exterior of a foundation wall.

Dormer – An opening in a sloping roof, the framing of which projects out to form a vertical wall suitable for windows or other openings.

Downspout – A pipe, usually of metal, for carrying rainwater down from the roof’s horizontal gutters.

Drywall – A manufactured panel made out of gypsum plaster and encased in a thin cardboard. Usually 1/2″ thick and 4′ x 8′ or 4′ x 12′ in size. The panels are nailed or screwed onto the framing and the joints are taped and covered with a ‘joint compound’. ‘Green board’ type drywall has a greater resistance to moisture than regular (white) plasterboard and is used in bathrooms and other “wet areas”.

Duct – A round or rectangular metal pipe installed for distributing warm (or cold) air from the furnace to rooms in the home. Also, a tunnel made of galvanized metal or rigid fiberglass that carries air from the heater or ventilation opening to the rooms in a building.

Eaves – The horizontal exterior roof overhang.

Fascia – Horizontal boards attached to rafter/truss ends at the eaves and along gables. Roof drain gutters are attached to the fascia.

Footing – Continuous 8″ or 10″ thick concrete pad installed before and supports the foundation wall.

Form – Temporary structure erected to contain concrete during placing and initial hardening.

Foundation – The supporting portion of a structure below the first floor construction, or below grade, including the footings.

Framing – Lumber used for the structural members of a building, such as studs, joists and rafters.

Gable – The upper triangular-shaped portion of an end wall, beneath the roof.

Gable Roof – A ridge roof which terminates in a gable.

Gingerbread – Wood trim or molding of an elaborate ornamentation or superfluous embellishment.

Insulation – Any material high in resistance to heat transmission that, when placed in the walls, ceiling or floors of a structure, will reduce the rate of heat flow.

Jamb – The side and head lining of a doorway, window or other opening. Includes studs as well as the frame and trim.

Joist – Wooden 2 X 8’s, 10’s or 12’s that run parallel to one another and support a floor or ceiling, and supported in turn by larger beams, girders or bearing walls.

Millwork – Generally all building materials made of finished wood and manufactured in millwork plants. Includes all doors, window and door frames, blinds, mantels, panelwork, stairway components (ballusters, rails, etc.), moldings and interior trim. Does not include flooring, ceiling or siding.

Post and Pad Foundation – A foundation assembly for supporting a cross member that comprises a vertical timber post attached to the upper surface of a wider pre-formed concrete pad.

Rafter – Lumber used to support the roof sheeting and roof loads. Generally, 2 X 10’s and 2 X 12’s are used. The rafters of a flat roof are sometimes called roof joists.

Soffit – The area below the eaves and overhangs. The underside where the roof overhangs the walls. Usually the underside of an overhanging cornice.

Slab – Concrete pavement, including driveway, garage, and basement floor.

Stud – A vertical wood framing member, also referred to as a wall stud, attached to the horizontal sole plate below and the top plate above. Normally 2 X 4’s or 2 X 6’s, 8′ long. One of a series of wood or metal vertical structural members placed as supporting elements in walls and partitions.

Sump Pump – A submersible pump in a sump pit that pumps any excess ground water to the outside of the home.

Turret – A small tower projecting from a building, usually at a corner.

Vancouver Special – A common reference to houses built in a particular architectural styleroughly between 1965 and 1985 in Vancouver, B.C. They are characterized by their box-like structure, low-pitched roofs, balconies across the front of the house, and brick or stone finishes on the ground-floor level of the facade with stucco elsewhere. Vancouver Specials usually have the main living quarters on the upper floor and secondary bedrooms on the bottom, making them ideal for renovating to secondary suites. The style takes maximum advantage of the buildable area of a standard city lot.

Vapour Barrier – A building product installed on exterior walls and ceilings under the drywall and on the warm side of the insulation. It is used to retard the movement of water vapour into walls and prevent condensation within them. Normally, polyethylene plastic sheeting is used.

Important Passport Tips for Canadians

First of all, the passport remains the exclusive property of the Government of Canada and the person is allowed to use it.

Safekeeping

As the custodian of this passport, it is your responsibility to keep it in a safe place at all times. If issued to a child, it is the parent or legal guardian’s responsibility to safeguard the passport on the child’s behalf.

When travelling: Do not leave a passport unattended in your luggage, vehicle, hotel room or esewhere. Lock it in a hotel safe or carry it securely in a moneybelt, purse or inside coat pocket.

At home: when no travelling, it is recommended that your passport be stored in a secure location in your home not easily accessibile to others.

Before you travel

Check the Government of Canada’s official Travel Advice and Advisories or each destination country at http://travel.gc.ca/travelling/advisories. You will find up-to-date, country-specific advice on safety and security, entry and exit requirements, health concers, local laws and culture, and natural disasters and climate for more than 220 destinations worldwide.

Order or download a copy of Essential Information for Canadian Travellers and other publications for advice on safe and responsible travel at travel.gc.ca/publication.

Passport validity/expiry date: Check the expiry date of your passport before planning a trip. Many countries require that your passport be valid for several months after the date you plan to leave. Each country sets its own rules. so you should consult the Travel Advice and Advisories at travel.gc.ca/advice to confirm the requirements of each of your destination countries.

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What is exFAT

Saw a new type of disk format, exFAT. I am only knowing FAT, FAT32, NTFS, and some others for Linux operation system.

Today, when I try to format a microSD card, it has a new option, exFAT.

exfat-format

What is exFAT?

 

File size limit is now 16 exabytes.
Format size limits and files per directory limits are practically eliminated.
Like HPFS, exFAT uses free space bitmaps to reduce fragmentation and free space allocation/detection issues.
Like HTFS, permission systems should be able to be attached through an access control list (ACL). It is unclear if or when Vista will include this feature, however.

Interestingly enough, exFAT is not used and was not designed for formatting hard drives. It is only recommended in flash memory storage and other external devices only. This is why it is currently not considered a huge competitor to NTFS on hard drives.

 

For me, I know that flash drive capacity is getting bigger and bigger. And also the file size, I mean the video file size is also getting bigger and bigger.

FAT32 has a limitation of 4GB file size limit.

NTFS and exFAt can store a single file with 5Gb or evern more.

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Men’s Health

Men often neglect their health and well-being due to a lack of awareness, poor health education, or behaviour patterns in their work and personal lives. Men have a reputation for avoiding the doctor, especially when the visit may involve sensitive issues. However, regualr check-ups are a must. They can help screen for diseases that may have no obvious symptoms in their early stages – such as prostate or testicular cancer. Here are some common health concers men should pay more aattention to.

Prostatitis is the term used to inflammation of the prostate gland. A farly common condition, it can be difficult to diagnose. Symptoms include:

  • an urgent need to urinate
  • pain or burning when urinating
  • pelvic, groin, or lower back pain

Potstate enlargement is a common problem in middle-aged and older men. An enlarged prostate can press against the tube to the bladder(urethra) and interfere with the flow of urine. While not all men with an enlarged prostate have symptoms, some experience the following:

  • feeling and urgent need to urinate
  • difficulty starting urination
  • need to urinate frequently
  • a weak urine stream
  • dribbling at the end of urination

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer in Canadian men. A man’s chances of developing this type of cancer increase with age, especially from age 50 on. Prostate cancer doesn’t usually produce any signs or symptoms in its early stages when treatment is most successful, so medical check-ps are vital. When symptoms are present, they may include:

  • painful urination
  • difficulty urinating
  • pain in the pelvic area that lasts several weeks or more
  • loss of appetite or unexplained weight loss
  • needing to urinate more often, especially at night
  • blood in the urine or semen

Erectile dysfunction is the repeated inability to abtain an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse. This is a very common condition, and there are a number of highly effective treatments.

 

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